Dermatology World August 2011 : Page 17
solid malignancies and was not associated with improved clinical outcomes when compared with standard therapy alone [ see Drug Interactions ]. Use with Anakinra or Abatacept Use of Enbrel with anakinra or abatacept is not recommended [ see Drug Interactions ]. Use in Patients with Moderate to Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis In a study of 48 hospitalized patients treated with Enbrel or placebo for moderate to severe alcoholic hepatitis, the mortality rate in patients treated with Enbrel was similar to patients treated with placebo at 1 month but significantly higher after 6 months. Physicians should use caution when using Enbrel in patients with moderate to severe alcoholic hepatitis. ADVERSE REACTIONS Across clinical studies and postmarketing experience, the most serious adverse reactions with Enbrel were infections, neurologic events, CHF, and hematologic events [ see Warnings and Precautions ]. The most common adverse reactions with Enbrel were infections and injection site reactions. Clinical Studies Experience Adverse Reactions in Adult Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, or Plaque Psoriasis The data described below reflect exposure to Enbrel in 2219 adult patients with RA followed for up to 80 months, in 182 patients with PsA for up to 24 months, in 138 patients with AS for up to 6 months, and in 1204 adult patients with PsO for up to 18 months. In controlled trials, the proportion of Enbrel-treated patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse events was approximately 4% in the indications studied. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not predict the rates observed in clinical practice. Infections Infections, including viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, have been observed in adult and pediatric patients. Infections have been noted in all body systems and have been reported in patients receiving Enbrel alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. In controlled portions of trials, the types and severity of infection were similar between Enbrel and the respective control group (placebo or MTX for RA and PsA patients) in RA, PsA, AS, and PsO patients. Rates of infections in RA and PsO patients are provided in Table 3 and Table 4, respectively. Infections consisted primarily of upper respiratory tract infection, sinusitis, and influenza. In controlled portions of trials in RA, PsA, AS, and PsO, the rates of serious infection were similar (0.8% in placebo, 3.6% in MTX, and 1.4% in Enbrel/ Enbrel + MTX-treated groups). In clinical trials in rheumatologic indications, serious infections experienced by patients have included, but are not limited to, pneumonia, cellulitis, septic arthritis, bronchitis, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis, sepsis, abscess, and osteomyelitis. In clinical trials in PsO, serious infections experienced by patients have included, but are not limited to, pneumonia, cellulitis, gastroenteritis, abscess, and osteomyelitis. The rate of serious infections was not increased in open-label extension trials and was similar to that observed in Enbrel-and placebo-treated patients from controlled trials. In 66 global clinical trials of 17,505 patients (21,015 patient-years of therapy), tuberculosis was observed in approximately 0.02% of patients. In 17,696 patients (27,169 patient-years of therapy) from 38 clinical trials and 4 cohort studies in the US and Canada, tuberculosis was observed in approximately 0.006% of patients. These studies include reports of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis [ see Warnings and Precautions ]. Injection Site Reactions In placebo-controlled trials in rheumatologic indications, approximately 37% of patients treated with Enbrel developed injection site reactions. In controlled trials in patients with PsO, 15% of patients treated with Enbrel developed injection site reactions during the first 3 months of treatment. All injection site reactions were described as mild to moderate (erythema, itching, pain, swelling, bleeding, bruising) and generally did not necessitate drug discontinuation. Injection site reactions generally occurred in the first month and subsequently decreased in frequency. The mean duration of injection site reactions was 3 to 5 days. Seven percent of patients experienced redness at a previous injection site when subsequent injections were given. Immunogenicity Patients with RA, PsA, AS, or PsO were tested at multiple time points for antibodies to etanercept. Antibodies to the TNF receptor portion or other protein components of the Enbrel drug product were detected at least once in sera of approximately 6% of adult patients with RA, PsA, AS, or PsO. These antibodies were all non-neutralizing. Results from JIA patients were similar to those seen in adult RA patients treated with Enbrel. In PsO studies that evaluated the exposure of etanercept for up to 120 weeks, the percentage of patients testing positive at the assessed time points of 24, 48, 72, and 96 weeks ranged from 3.6%–8.7% and were all non-neutralizing. The percentage of patients testing positive increased with an increase in the duration of study; however, the clinical significance of this finding is unknown. No apparent correlation of antibody development to clinical response or adverse events was observed. The immunogenicity data of Enbrel beyond 120 weeks of exposure are unknown. The data reflect the percentage of patients whose test results were considered positive for antibodies to etanercept in an ELISA assay, and are highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of any antibody positivity in an assay is highly dependent on several factors, including assay sensitivity and specificity, assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to etanercept with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading. Autoantibodies Patients with RA had serum samples tested for autoantibodies at multiple time points. In RA Studies I and II, the percentage of patients evaluated for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) who developed new positive ANA (titer ≥ 1:40) was higher in patients treated with Enbrel (11%) than in placebo-treated patients (5%). The percentage of patients who developed new positive anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies was also higher by radioimmunoassay (15% of patients treated with Enbrel compared to 4% of placebo-treated patients) and by Crithidia luciliae assay (3% of patients treated with Enbrel compared to none of placebo-treated patients). The proportion of patients treated with Enbrel who developed anticardiolipin antibodies was similarly increased compared to placebo-treated patients. In RA Study III, no pattern of increased autoantibody development was seen in Enbrel patients compared to MTX patients [ see Autoimmunity ]. Other Adverse Reactions Table 3 summarizes adverse reactions reported in adult RA patients. The types of adverse reactions seen in patients with PsA or AS were similar to the types of adverse reactions seen in patients with RA. Table 3. Percent of Adult RA Patients Experiencing Adverse Reactions in Controlled Clinical Trials Placebo Controlled a (Studies I, II, and a Phase 2 Study) Placebo (N = 152) Reaction Infection d (total) Upper Respiratory Infections e Non-upper Respiratory Infections Injection Site Reactions Diarrhea Rash Pruritus Pyrexia Urticaria Hypersensitivity a Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: cutaneous lupus erythematous, cutaneous vasculitis (including leukocytoclastic vasculitis), erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, subcutaneous nodule, new or worsening psoriasis (all sub-types including pustular and palmoplantar) Opportunistic infections, including atypical mycobacterial infection, herpes zoster, aspergillosis, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, and protozoal infections have also been reported in postmarketing use. DRUG INTERACTIONS Specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Enbrel. Vaccines Most PsA patients receiving Enbrel were able to mount effective B-cell immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, but titers in aggregate were moderately lower and fewer patients had 2-fold rises in titers compared to patients not receiving Enbrel. The clinical significance of this is unknown. Patients receiving Enbrel may receive concurrent vaccinations, except for live vaccines. No data are available on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines in patients receiving Enbrel. Patients with a significant exposure to varicella virus should temporarily discontinue Enbrel therapy and be considered for prophylactic treatment with varicella zoster immune globulin [ see Warnings and Precautions ]. Immune-Modulating Biologic Products In a study in which patients with active RA were treated for up to 24 weeks with concurrent Enbrel and anakinra therapy, a 7% rate of serious infections was observed, which was higher than that observed with Enbrel alone (0%) [ see Warnings and Precautions ] and did not result in higher ACR response rates compared to Enbrel alone. The most common infections consisted of bacterial pneumonia (4 cases) and cellulitis (4 cases). One patient with pulmonary fibrosis and pneumonia died due to respiratory failure. Two percent of patients treated concurrently with Enbrel and anakinra developed neutropenia (ANC < 1 x 10 9 /L). In clinical studies, concurrent administration of abatacept and Enbrel resulted in increased incidences of serious adverse events, including infections, and did not demonstrate increased clinical benefit [ see Warnings and Precautions ]. Cyclophosphamide The use of Enbrel in patients receiving concurrent cyclophosphamide therapy is not recommended [ see Warnings and Precautions ]. Sulfasalazine Patients in a clinical study who were on established therapy with sulfasalazine, to which Enbrel was added, were noted to develop a mild decrease in mean neutrophil counts in comparison to groups treated with either Enbrel or sulfasalazine alone. The clinical significance of this observation is unknown. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B. Developmental toxicity studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses ranging from 60-to 100-fold higher than the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to Enbrel. There are, however, no studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Pregnancy Registry: To monitor outcomes of pregnant women exposed to Enbrel, a pregnancy registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-877-311-8972. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether Enbrel is excreted in human milk or absorbed systemically after ingestion. Because many drugs and immunoglobulins are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Enbrel, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug. Pediatric Use Enbrel is indicated for treatment of polyarticular JIA in patients ages 2 years and older [ see Indications and Usage, Warnings and Precautions, Adverse Reactions ]. Enbrel has not been studied in children < 2 years of age with JIA. The safety and efficacy of Enbrel in pediatric patients with PsO have not been studied. Rare (<0.1%) cases of IBD have been reported in JIA patients receiving Enbrel, which is not effective for the treatment of IBD [see Postmarketing Experience (6.2)]. Geriatric Use A total of 480 RA patients ages 65 years or older have been studied in clinical trials. In PsO randomized clinical trials, a total of 138 out of 1965 subjects treated with Enbrel or placebo were age 65 or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, but the number of geriatric PsO subjects is too small to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Because there is a higher incidence of infections in the elderly population in general, caution should be used in treating the elderly. Use in Diabetics There have been reports of hypoglycemia following initiation of Enbrel therapy in patients receiving medication for diabetes, necessitating a reduction in anti-diabetic medication in some of these patients. Rx Only. This brief summary is based on ENBREL prescribing information v. 43: 02/2011 Manufactured by: Immunex Corporation Thousand Oaks, CA 91320-1799 U.S. License Number 1132 Marketed by Amgen Inc. and Pfizer Inc. © 1998 – 2011 Immunex Corporation. All rights reserved. U.S. Patent Nos. 5,395,760; 5,605,690, Re. 36,755. For more information please call 1-888-436-2735 or visit www.enbrel.com Active Controlled b (Study III) MTX (N = 217) Enbrel c (N = 415) Enbrel c (N = 349) Percent of Patients 39 30 15 11 9 2 1 – 1 – 50 38 21 37 8 3 2 3 – – Percent of Patients 86 70 59 18 16 19 5 4 4 1 81 65 54 43 16 13 5 2 2 1 Includes data from the 6-month study in which patients received concurrent MTX therapy in both arms. Study duration of 2 years. c Any dose. d Includes bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. e Most frequent Upper Respiratory Infections were upper respiratory tract infection, sinusitis, and influenza. b In placebo-controlled PsO trials, the percentages of patients reporting adverse reactions in the 50 mg twice a week dose group were similar to those observed in the 25 mg twice a week dose group or placebo group. Table 4 summarizes adverse reactions reported in adult PsO patients from Studies I and II. Table 4. Percent of Adult PsO Patients Experiencing Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Portions of Clinical Trials (Studies I & II) Placebo (N = 359) Reaction Infection b (total) Non-upper Respiratory Infections Upper Respiratory Infections c Injection Site Reactions Diarrhea Rash Pruritus Urticaria Hypersensitivity Pyrexia a Enbrel a (N = 876) Percent of Patients 28 14 17 6 2 1 2 – – 1 27 12 17 15 3 1 1 1 1 – Includes 25 mg SC QW, 25 mg SC BIW, 50 mg SC QW, and 50 mg SC BIW doses. b Includes bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. c Most frequent Upper Respiratory Infections were upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and sinusitis. Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients In general, the adverse reactions in pediatric patients were similar in frequency and type as those seen in adult patients [ see Warnings and Precautions ]. The types of infections reported in pediatric patients were generally mild and consistent with those commonly seen in the general pediatric population. Two JIA patients developed varicella infection and signs and symptoms of aseptic meningitis, which resolved without sequelae. In open-label clinical studies of children with JIA, adverse reactions reported in those ages 2 to 4 years were similar to adverse reactions reported in older children. Postmarketing Experience Adverse reactions have been reported during post approval use of Enbrel in adults and pediatric patients. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to Enbrel exposure. Adverse reactions are listed by body system below: Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Cardiac disorders: Gastrointestinal disorders: General disorders: Hepatobiliary disorders: Immune disorders: Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Neoplasms benign, malignant, and unspecified: Nervous system disorders: pancytopenia, anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphadenopathy, aplastic anemia [ see Warnings and Precautions ] congestive heart failure [ see Warnings and Precautions ] Inflammatory bowel disease angioedema, chest pain autoimmune hepatitis, elevated transaminases macrophage activation syndrome, systemic vasculitis lupus-like syndrome Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers, Merkel cell carcinoma [ see Warnings and Precautions ] convulsions, multiple sclerosis, demyelination, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, paresthesias [ see Warnings and Precautions ] uveitis interstitial lung disease Ocular disorders: Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: ©2011 Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320 and Pfizer Inc. All rights reserved.